A giant mis-match

The Giza Pyramids are wonders of the Ancient World. They stand on a raised sandstone plateau, on the edge of modern-day Cairo. They are truly astonishing constructions, even after losing their limestone casings that once would have made them shine brightly in the sun. They are built from millions of two-tonne limestone blocks, fitted together with hair-fine precision. Thousands of people visit them every year to marvel at their scale and age. Some of these visitors are also aware of the precision of the Giza pyramids. In the nineteenth century, W. M. Flinders Petrie, the eminent archaeologist, conducted details surveys of these buildings, particularly the Great Pyramid. He was astonished at how accurately they’d been built. His report is available as a pdf, online at http://www.gizapyramids.org /pdf_library/ petrie_gizeh.pdf. Petrie discovered the astonishing accuracy of the Great Pyramid’s construction. For example, he recorded that its base is almost precisely a square, to within 0.65″ (page 11). It is also aligned to true north (not magnetic north) to a fraction of a degree; 5′ and 16″, according to his readings. The pyramid is also positioned to within a few miles of exactly 30 degrees latitude on our planet.

Officially, the three Giza pyramids’ construction, according to archaeologists, is that they were each built in a generation, in around 2500 BC, by the local civilisation. Although this has been the official line for generations, it’s effectively impossible from an engineering viewpoint. At that time, the Ancient Egyptians only possessed copper tools and ropes. Any experienced civil and mechanical engineer would state that it would be impossible to build those pyramids with such tools.

The engineering impossibility of building the pyramid, with ropes and copper tools, is partly because of its sheer scale. The Great Pyramid alone contains 2.3 million blocks of stone. Many of these fit together with extremely high precision. Based on studies, the mean opening of the joints, in some sections, is only 0.5 millimetres wide. If the Great Pyramid was built in a generation, then each block needed to have been fitted into place approximately once a minute. All modern attempts to fit such blocks of stone, using ropes and copper tools, have required an hour of work, per stone. This took place on pyramids only ten-feet-tall. But the greater impossibility of building the Great Pyramid with ropes and copper tools comes when we examine the pyramid’s central, granite blocks. Some of these weigh as much as eighty tonnes. They have also been fitted into place with great precision but more importantly, granite is an extremely hard stone. The difficulty of working and cutting such blocks is highlighted by the following quote. In 1983, Donald Rahn of Rahn Granite Surface Plate Co reported that:

“Diamond drills, rotating at nine hundred revolutions per minute, penetrate granite at the rate of one inch in five minutes.”

Even with modern tools, it’s clear that working granite is a massive task. To cut and work granite with copper tools would be like carving a palace, out of concrete, with a plastic knife. Therefore, the official, archaeological explanation, that a Bronze-Age society made each of the Giza pyramids in a generation, must be ignored, as it betrays a total ignorance of science and reality.

The Place of Ascension

In order to understand who made the Giza Pyramids, and what they were for, we need to look at them scientifically, and with fresh eyes. To start with, it’s worth knowing what the Ancient Egyptians themselves believed was the purpose of the Great Pyramid. According to a large body of research, and statements made by the Ancient Egyptians themselves in their Pyramid Texts, the Giza pyramids were built to send their god-pharaoh’s soul to the northern, circumpolar stars. This purpose is reflected in the words they used to describe the Great Pyramid. The Egyptian word for any pyramid means, ‘a place of ascension’. This Guardian article, entitled Pyramids seen as stairways to heaven, reports on the work of Toby Wilkinson, an Egyptologist based at Cambridge University. In the Guardian article, Wilkinson explains that the pyramids, ‘could be seen as launch pads for the pharaoh’s journey to the afterlife among the stars’. The Guardian article also touches on another description of the pyramids, that they were strongly associated with light and fire. This connection extends to the very word ‘pyramid’. A likely etymological source of the word is a combination of the Greek words ‘pyro’ (meaning ‘fire’) and ‘mid’ (from the Greek word ‘mesos’ meaning ‘middle’). The word ‘pyramid’ therefore literally means ‘pyre in the middle’, as in a funeral pyre.

It’s therefore reasonable to conclude that the Great Pyramid was a building that contained, or produced, a light. The Great Pyramid was also ‘a place of ascension’, through which the god-king’s spirit could ascend to the northern, circumpolar stars. This indicates that the Great Pyramid was not a simple tomb. Instead, it was a literally a ‘soul rocket platform’, a god-soul Cape Canaveral, or to put it more succinctly, it was a device. This purpose would explain the precision of its location and the precision of its orientation and construction. If it was a god-soul Cape Canaveral, then it makes sense that it had to be set up precisely, in order to work. This would also explain why the Great Pyramid contains such exotic and hard-to-build components. They were included because they carried out a specific, vital, functional purpose. But what was that purpose? What did that Great Pyramid device do?

Fortunately, someone has already done an excellent job of answering the question of how the Great Pyramid device worked. Several decades ago, a professional engineer, Christopher Dunn, studied its construction in great detail, and the make-up of its chambers. He concluded that the Great Pyramid did produce a light. To be specific, it produced a maser light, or a microwave version of a laser. Dunn wrote a book, The Giza Power Plant, which explains in great detail how it would have worked. At first glance, the idea that the Great Pyramid was a maser does seem ridiculous, but this is mostly because we’ve been repeatedly told that the Great Pyramid was a tomb built by copper-tool-wielding farmers. Instead, if we accept that the Great Pyramid was built by a technologically advanced civilisation, then the idea that it contained a maser is perfectly reasonable. The question of what civilisation built the Great Pyramid, and when they did it, will be covered later in this article.

Let us therefore surmise that the Great Pyramid was a device, built to produce a light. It was a ‘pyre-amid’, a building containing a potent light-source. In addition, its powerful light shone up at the stars. Whoever built it had the certain belief that when one of their god-kings became a spirit, an akh, that individual would travel on that beam to another star. Whether or not such a strange idea could possibly be true is secondary. The primary issue is that whoever built the Great Pyramid believed it to be true. What’s more, they believed in that idea so strongly that they built a device to carry out the task.

The next question becomes; what was that beam of light aimed at? The Ancient Egyptian records speak of the northern, circumpolar stars being the target of the pyramid’s ‘spirit ascension’, but that is a vague aim, in both senses of the word. If the Great Pyramid was a precisely constructed device, like a sniper rifle, then it seems logical to conclude that it must have been built to hit something. If that was the case, then it wasn’t the general circumpolar stars that were the target, it was a specific star-system.

Sitting duck

It isn’t easy to hit another star-system, from Earth, with a beam of light, particularly one that was produced over a period of time to create a ‘road’ or ‘stairway’ to that star-system. The first thing you would need would be a very powerful, very focussed beam. It seems, according to Dunn’s work, that the Great Pyramid could produce such a beam. The second problem is much harder to overcome. Our planet is constantly rotating. Because of this, nearly all the stars in our sky are continually moving. If someone fired a beam of light at a star in our night sky from a stationary object on Earth, the target star will have moved long before the ray reached it. Fortunately, there are two locations in our night sky where a star does not move, for us on Earth. These two locations are the South and North Celestial Poles, the places in our night sky directly above our Earth’s axes. If a star is positioned on, or very near, either of those two locations, it will hardly move at all, for us. This is because, as our planet rotates, the star will only move in a tiny circle. As a result, it becomes a viable target for a beam of light fired from our planet; the star is effectively a sitting duck. Therefore, in order to successfully fire a beam of light at another star-system, we’re going to have to choose a star that’s sitting on one of our celestial poles. For the Great Pyramid, situated in our Northern Hemisphere, this would have to be the North Celestial Pole.

The Great Pyramid would therefore need an output passage that pointed at the North Celestial Pole. By strange coincidence, the Great Pyramid does possess such a shaft. The pyramid is aligned almost exactly north-south and its northern King’s shaft is pointed at true north. Also, the pyramid sits at almost exactly 30 degrees latitude in the Northern Hemisphere and the elevation of its northern shaft, leading out of the King’s Chamber in its centre, is approximately 30 degrees from the horizontal. There has been much examination of the northern shaft’s exact elevation. According to the work of Rudolf Gantenbrink, carried out in 1999, the shaft varies in elevation at different points along its route. The most important elevation would be the section before the shaft exited the pyramid. His results are available here, at cheops.org. To quote from the page:

‘The average angle is 31.20°, determined by 5 measurements made over a length of 11 m.’

This would seem too high for any beam, exiting the shaft, to be parallel to the Earth’s axis, but when I studied Gantenbrink’s CAD drawings, they indicated that the shaft was elevated at thirty degrees in the section shortly before exiting the pyramid. There is also the matter of the outside casing stones, which have fallen away. Their construction would also have influenced the final-section-elevation of the shaft. They could have been used to set up the final adjustment to the passage’s elevation. There is therefore good reason to conclude that the Great Pyramid did possess an output shaft pointed at the Celestial North Pole.

We therefore seem to have everything set up for the Great Pyramid to hit another star-system with a beam of light. The next question is; which star?

A Cosmic Clock

If anyone tried, tomorrow, to fire a prolonged beam of light at another star-system from Earth, they’d fail miserably. This is because there is no star sitting directly on, or very close to, our North Celestial Pole. Our pole star Polaris is close, but not very close. Fortunately, this isn’t a deal-breaker. The position of the stars in our sky slowly changes. As the millennia tick by, the stars in our sky shift due to our planet’s axial-precession. In other words, our planet’s axis of spin changes its direction very slowly. It moves in a full circle, every 25,800 years. During that long cycle, the place in the Heavens where the axis of our planet points to, the Celestial Pole, changes. In effect, our Celestial North Pole moves in a circle through a group of northern constellations. As this axis-target-point moves, in a circle, through those constellations, it comes very close to certain stars. These moments of ‘targetting’ are very rare, with gaps between them of many thousands of years, but they do happen. The last one occurred in around 2800 BCE when the star Thuban, or Alpha Draconis, moved almost exactly on to our North Celestial Pole. If someone wanted to use the Great Pyramid to fire a beam of light at another star, this would have been an ideal time to do it. In 2800 BC, Alpha Draconis was a viable target.

It’s therefore very interesting to note that there are signs that work was done on the Great Pyramid in the three centuries before 2800 BCE. The Egyptologists Mark Lehner and Robert Wenke carried out carbon-dating work at Giza in 1984, financed by the Edgar Cayce Foundation, who believed that the Giza Pyramids were built in around 10,00 BCE. The team co-authored a paper, in 1987, headed by Herbert Haas, entitled Radiocarbon chronology and the historical calendar in Egypt. The publisher was Oxford: British Archaeological Reports. The paper reports that they took thirteen samples of mortar from the Great Pyramid and produced dates in the range 3101 BCE to 2853 BCE and an average date of 2917 BCE. They took seven samples of mortar from the Second Pyramid which produced an average date of 2988 BCE. This paper is now hard to access but the authors do refer to that 1984 work in this Academia.edu article entitled Dating the Pyramids. The authors admit, in Dating the Pyramids, that their carbon-dating results indicated that the Giza monuments were built, on average, 374 years earlier than the Cambridge Ancient History official dates.

Later on, Lehner and Wenke were employed by a new sponsor, the David Koch Charitable Trust. They were given a new colleague, Zahi Hawass; a strong proponent of the official time-period for the construction. With the help of these new benefactors, Lehner and Wenke carried out a new, larger series of tests. Their new results turned out to be much more in line with the official dating of the pyramids. Their work was published in a later paper, Radiocarbon Dates of Old and Middle Kingdom Monuments in Egypt, which is widely available.

If we put aside Wenke and Lehner’s later paper, and assume that the 1984 work was correct, and not an anomaly created by four-hundred-year-old firewood, an idea suggested by the authors, then it seems the Great Pyramid was worked on in the centuries before 2800 BCE. [Dec 2020 Update: cedar wood pieces, originally found in the pyramid in 1872, have been found again in Aberdeen University. They date in the range 3300 BCE – 3050 BCE. More in this post.] There is still, nevertheless, a problem; there is no evidence that an advanced civilisation existed in 2800 BCE, able to build the Great Pyramid. There is one explanation that does not fall foul of this fact; that the Great Pyramid was not built in the period of 3000 BCE – 2800 BCE, ready for Thuban’s transit across the North Celestial Pole. Instead, The Great Pyramid was renovated for that key date. Someone, all that time ago,  knew what the Great Pyramid was built to do. They decided to renovate it, clean it up and use it for the transit of Thuban. Whether or not they succeeded is very hard to tell.

Unfortunately, there are signs that something went badly wrong inside the Great Pyramid in 2800 BCE. Dunn, in his book, points out that there is evidence that the King’s Chamber suffered an explosion and that there was an intense fire. This fire seems to have destroyed equipment in the Grand Gallery, which Dunn states contained acoustic resonating equipment, known as Helmholtz Resonators. If his conclusion is correct, then it would seem that an attempt to send a beam of light, in 2800 BC, may have gone badly wrong. The Great Pyramid’s most recent ‘stairway to heaven’ may have collapsed in dramatic fashion. Written evidence in support of such an ancient event is scant but there are some enigmatic references. For example, Peter Hopkirk wrote an engaging book on Tibet, entitled Trespassers on the Roof of the World, in 1982. In the book, on page 10, he states:

‘The Tibetans believed their earliest kings descended to Earth on ropes suspended from the sky. When they died, they simply returned the way they had come. All went well, it appears, until the death of the eighth in line of these semi-mythical rulers. Somehow, whether by accident or design, his sky-rope was severed, so preventing him from returning to Heaven. His earthly tomb, Tibetans say, still exists at Kongpo in Southern Tibet.’

If the legend is correct, then perhaps a ‘king’ did renovate the Great Pyramid, in 2800 BCE, to take advantage of the passage of the star Thuban, or Alpha Draconis, over the North Celestial Pole. Sadly for him, his attempt failed disastrously.

It therefore seems logical to surmise that the Giza Pyramids were standing, and had been standing for a long time, even back in the ancient days of 3,000 BCE. If that is correct, then when were they made? For which star-conjunction were they originally constructed? To work this out, we need to look much further back, in order to identify a much older time when an advanced, technological civilisation could have existed on Earth, capable of building the Giza Necropolis. Fortunately, the builders seem to have left clues to help us to do that very task.

As above, so below

When the architects of the Giza Pyramids built their magnificent creation, they must have known that their monuments would last a very long time. In addition, they’d also have known that later generations would probably forget the pyramids’ purpose. Due to the weathering of time and the change in languages and writing, any written account of the pyramids’ purpose would eventually disappear. But there is a way to preserve a message, in a structure, without using language.

One clue that the architects could have left, for later generations, was through the positioning of the three pyramids. As we’ve already seen, it’s possible to work out that the Great Pyramid was designed to fire a ray at a particular star, simply by examining its interior, its location and its orientation. We are therefore aware of a strong link between the Giza pyramids and star-systems. Robert Bauval noticed something along these lines. He spotted that the three Giza pyramids closely matched the positioning of the three stars of Orion’s Belt, as shown in the illustration. This is a fascinating coincidence, particularly as the Orion constellation was a major feature in Ancient Egyptian mythology. The Orion constellation, for the Ancient Egyptians, was second only in significance to the star Sirius, located in the sky to the south-east of the Orion constellation. They often referred to Orion’s Belt as the Three Kings. In Egyptian mythology, the Three Kings followed the birth of Osiris’s star, Sirius, above the horizon, at the beginning of the fruitful summer in Egypt.

If the pyramid builders did build the Giza pyramids to match Orion’s Belt, then they could have included an extra clue, or piece of information. The angle of Orion’s Belt changes over millennia due to the same axial precession that causes different stars to move over the North Celestial Pole. Orion’s Belt also tilts at a different angle depending on where it is in that long, precessional period. It is therefore possible, by building the three pyramids at a particular north-south angle, to leave a precessional date clue. According to Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock’s calculations, the angle of the Giza pyramids, when compared to Orion’s Belt, do indicate a specific date. The two authors believe the positioning of the three pyramids indicates a date of around 10,500 BCE. Since the angle of Orion’s Belt changes in a cyclic pattern, over a 25,800 year period, there are other possible dates. For example, Orion’s Belt will tilt again at that particular, matching angle in around 3,000 AD. Nevertheless, the 10,500 BCE date does seem the most likely match.

But there is a problem with the Giza / Orion’s Belt connection. According to what we’ve already explained in this article, the Great Pyramid was designed to fire a ray of light at a star on the Celestial North Pole. As we’ve already seen, the last such conjunction was in 2800 BCE, with the star Thuban or Alpha Draconis. If the pyramid builders did want to place their three pyramids to match three stars in the Heavens, surely they’d connect the pyramids with three stars that included a star that moved on to the North Celestial Pole? If this was done, then the star that the Great Pyramid connected to, via its maser beam, would be its star, creating an elegant and beautiful correlation. This correlation isn’t possible with Orion’s Belt, since none of those stars pass near the Celestial North Pole. Logically, Orion’s Belt is therefore not the ideal match. We must look elsewhere. In particular, we need to look further North, and further into the past.


If we use an astronomy programme, such as the excellent Stellarium, we can see the night sky thousands of years ago. We can check precisely which stars have been close to the Celestial North Pole during the last Platonic Great Year, the last 25,800 years. If we track back, it’s clear that little happens for ten-thousand years before Thuban’s move on to the Celestial North Pole in 2800 BCE. But if we wind the clock all the way back to 14,530 BCE, then we do get a match. In that very ancient year, the star Delta Cygni, in the Cygnus constellation, is on our Celestial North Pole, as shown in the accompanying image. Delta Cygni is a perfect match; it was almost precisely on the Celestial North Pole at that time. Delta Cygni is 165 light-years from Earth, roughly half the distance away from us of Thuban. In galactic terms, it’s in the same street as us.

What’s also interesting about Delta Cygni is that the three ‘wing’ stars of Cygnus are very similar, in their positioning, to the three Giza Pyramids. This connection between the three ‘wing’ stars of Cygnus and the Giza Pyramids is already a hot topic. The author and researcher Andrew Collins has written extensively on the connection between Cygnus and the Giza Necropolis. He states that the Giza pyramids were built to be aligned to the three ‘wing’ stars of Cygnus. A detailed essay on that connection can be found on his website, in his article GIZA’S COSMIC BLUEPRINT. To my knowledge, Andrew has not written about the connection between the Great Pyramid and the Celestial North Pole connection but his work does support a Giza – Cygnus connection.

Collins has also written about the legendary importance of the name given to Delta Cygni; Rukh. To quote from Collins’ recent book The Cygnus Key (pg 140):

In 1851, the English archaeologist, numismatist and orientalist Reginald Stuart Poole (1832-1895), in his book The Chronology of Ancient Egypt, wrote that that the bennu bird, the phoenix of Osiris, most likely corresponded to Cygnus, the Bird of the Greeks, and perhaps also included Aquila, or corresponded to part of each of those constellations. He made this conclusion after studying the bird’s placement on the zodiacal ceiling at the Ramesseum of El-Kurneh, located on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes in Southern Egypt.

Collins goes on to say that the phoenix of Osiris, a.k.a. the bennu bird, signifies a ‘pure soul’, a figure closely connected with the mythical Persian and Arab bird known as the Rukh, Anka or Simurgh. The legendary phoenix bird was known for its ability to die and be reborn in fire, from its own ashes, every 500 years. In a similar way, the Anka was said to be reborn every 1700 years. Rukh, an Arabic name for a monstrous bird, is the basis for the word Roc, again meaning a monstrous bird. The word is also related to the word rakham, meaning ‘a bird shaped like a vulture’ or ‘rachamah’, an Egyptian vulture. Vultures were associated in fable, and ancient lore, with the transmigration of spirits from Earth.

It therefore seems that Delta Cygni, the target star of the Great Pyramid in 14,530 BCE, may have been identified with the phoenix, the ‘soul bird’, strongly connected to the transmigration of souls to the heaven, a supernatural bird that died and was periodically reborn again, in fire. In addition, it was the phoenix of Osiris, possibly the most famous god-king of Ancient Egypt. This perfectly fits the ‘pyre-amid, maser, stairway to heaven, star-conjunction’ scenario. At periodic intervals, thanks to celestial precession, the stars align. A special star, associated with spiritual ascendence from a bed of fire, arrives at the appointed spot in the Heavens. Below, on the ground, the Great Pyramid, the ‘House of Fire’, lights up. A Stairway to Heaven is created, a blazing road of light connecting Earth to the star of spiritual ascendence. On this road of light, this maser-beam, the god-king, as elevated spirit, as an akh, ascends to Heaven.

High-tech shaman

We therefore have a strange possibility. The Giza Pyramids were not built in 2500 BC, according to the official view. They were not even built in the period of 3,000 BC t0 2,800 BC, according to the 1984 carbon-dating work done by Mark Lehner and Robert Wenke. Instead, the Giza Pyramids were only renovated during that period to take advantage of the star Thuban being on the Celestial North Pole. They were actually built some time before 14,530 BC. They were constructed in this ancient time to take advantage of the star Delta Cygni moving on the Celestial North Pole. At some point after that event, the civilisation that created the Giza Pyramids came to an end. As a result, their advanced technology was lost and forgotten, at least by the vast majority of people. I’ve investigated how this may have happened in other articles, most particularly the Göbekli Tepe Prophecy. In a post-catastrophe world, the pyramids stay standing, a stupendous relic of an advanced past. Someone survives the catastrophe and the knowledge of what the pyramids could do is kept. Eventually, in 2800 BC, the Great Pyramid is renovated and an attempt to create a ‘stairway to heaven’ to Thuban takes place. Sadly for its creators, the attempt goes disastrously wrong.

There are many intriguing consequences if this theory is correct. Firstly, whoever built the Giza Pyramids possessed highly advanced technology. In truth, this is obvious, just by looking at the Giza Pyramids. Secondly, those builders had a definite purpose for building the Great Pyramid; they wanted to fire a beam of light at a star on the Celestial North Pole. They wanted to do this so much that they were willing to create an enormous device for that purpose. They performed an endeavour similar to the Apollo programme but instead of sending a physical, heroic person on a rocket to our moon, they did their best to send a hero’s spirit to another star. They clearly believed that they could do this, so much so that they made something spectacular and near-immortal to do the job.

Is it possible to travel to another star, as a spirit, on a laser beam? The idea sounds ridiculous, unbelievable. It is a completely alien concept to our modern civilisation but there may be a reason for that. Our current civilisation is entirely preoccupied with material things. Our scientific establishment even goes as far as telling us that only physical things exist. In fact, such an idea is scientifically impossible, as I explain in my new book Solving Reality. If our civilisation was to change that view, and our scientists instead investigated what is possible with non-physical minds, then our view of spirit laser-beams may change profoundly. It’s an intriguing possibility.