One area of study that has fascinating me for years is the matter of our ancient past, the earliest forms of civilisation on Earth. Officially, civilisation started in around 4,000 BC in Sumer, in what is now Iran/Iraq. Before that, human beings were primitive hunter-gatherers, and had been that way for around 50,000 years, before which they were even more primitive hominids and Neanderthals. Unfortunately, it doesn’t take much investigation to work out that this official version must be wrong, based entirely on the evidence available. Instead, our ancient past is a far more intriguing and surprising place, full of seeming paradoxes and mysteries. This section of this website contains a number of articles I’ve written, putting forward novel theories for what went on, millennia ago. If an idea comes from another researcher, I will specify it in the article. Otherwise, the ideas are entirely mine. To choose an article, simply click on the item in the menu.